Annular dark-field imaging (ADF STEM)
Annular dark-field imaging
Annular dark-field imaging is a method of mapping samples in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). These images are formed by collecting scattered electrons with an annular dark-field detector.Conventional TEM dark-field imaging uses an objective aperture in order to only collect scattered electrons that pass through. In contrast, STEM dark-field imaging does not use an aperture to differentiate the scattered electrons from the main beam, but uses an annular detector to collect only the scattered electrons. Consequently, the contrast mechanisms are different between conventional dark field imaging and STEM dark field.
An annular dark field detector collects electrons from an annulus around the beam, sampling far more scattered electrons than can pass through an objective aperture. This gives an advantage in terms of signal collection efficiency and allows the main beam to pass to an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) detector, allowing both types of measurement to be performed simultaneously. Annular dark field imaging is also commonly performed in parallel with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy acquisition and can be also done in parallel to bright-field (STEM) imaging.
Wikipedia contributors. "Annular dark-field imaging." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Feb. 19, 2024.